List of Staffless / “Open Plus” Libraries in the United Kingdom and beyond

Swipe, type and enter

Swipe, type and enter. Image from Scandinavian Public Library Quarterly.

These are libraries that are open sometimes with no staff at all on site.  Systems include Bibliotheca Open+ and Axiell Aperio.  Entry to the library is via a library card and Pin, with CCTV aiding security and self-service machines/computers allow usage without staff. Denmark has been using this system in some of its libraries since 2011.

Bibliotheca claims there are 205 Open+ libraries (not necessarily all public) in Scandinavia (including 180 in Denmark – where the library card is also the national ID card which cuts down, but doesn’t eliminate – the number of people using other people’s IDs – and 41 in Sweden, 25 in Finland and 14 Norway).

The first public library to use the system in the USA began a trial in June 2016. A few (4 at time of writing inc Tubercurry in Sligo, Tullamore and Banaher in County Offa and the Lexicon in Dublin, September 2016) public libraries in the Republic of Ireland are also experimenting with the technology. A trial in Toronto (Canada) is about to begin, with strong union resistance (April 2017). There is one staffless library in Germany. Singapore has the claim to the first staffless library (in a shopping mall in 2002) but Gjern in Denmark is regarded as the first “true” staffless library. opened in 2004. There are at least 109 staffless libraries in the UK, all for some of their hours, or in process of becoming staffless.


  • Longer opening hours.
  • Avoid need for staffing therefore far cheaper per hour open, therefore can extend opening hours far beyond what budgets would normally provide.
  • User preference: users like having the library open for longer (or, in some cases, open at all).
  • Gain new users who otherwise would not have been able to use the library with older, more limited, hours.
  • Community feel and social capital: creates trust and meeting place.
  • Impersonal (some people prefer this)
  • Hours can be set to suit the library, as can other restrictions.  CCTV and remotely controlled equipment means security is provided.
  • A good news story if (as is often the case) Open+ is twinned with cuts to libraries elsewhere.
  • Regular users out of hours may police library themselves and assist those who need help.
  • Vandalism if often feared but appears rare, according to Danish/Scandinavian study.
“The council believes that the model that has been implemented offers people an enhanced service, without the council having to close any of the libraries. At a time when many other councils are having to close libraries, we are delighted that we have managed to develop a service that meets the needs of our residents whilst making the saving that we have to in order to continue meeting the needs of the whole city.” Peterborough Libraries (Vivacity)

  • Absence of personal touch, although remote conversations can be had.
  • Equalities issues: pilots in some authorities show far more men than women are willing to enter an apparently unsupervised library (ratio of 90% male to 10% female mentioned in one workshop attended by the author). However, news from other authorities does not seem to support this, with information from Denmark suggesting women are as likely to use as men.
  • Sense of “big brother is watching you” with CCTV. There is no CCTV in Swedish staffless libraries.
  • Question of access for those unaccompanied under 16 needs addressing in each authority. Barnet have decided 15 is the correct age.
  • Cost: the system is cheaper than paid staffing but cost (especially set up) is still substantial.

“Open+ does not deny access to under 16’s. The parameters and rules of open+ are completely flexible and decided locally by the library. The objective of open+ is for each authority or individual library to decide on their ideal opening hours (and the budgets can decide on how many of those hours can be staffed). Every individual in the community can then have access to their library, to borrow a book or use a PC when they want. If the library can increase supply then demand will increase from all demographics and user types. Under 16’s, like everybody else, are free to use the new extended hours of library access 7 days a week. However, it is not uncommon for libraries to elect not to allow children in the library at night by themselves but this is a local decision not a restriction by default of open+ ” Daren Ratcliffe, UK Managing Director, Bibliotheca [via email]

  • Cannot be used by those without library cards already
  • Not suitable for anyone with certain special needs. “Physical access will be difficult for anyone with such needs, and once in the library, without staff present, many learning disabled residents, perhaps with autism, or similar difficulties, will struggle to use the facilities provided …” (Broken Barnet, March 2016).
  • Danger that regular library users during outside open hours will take ownership of the library, policing who is allowed in themselves. Would such users be checked by the authority to ensure they do not take advantage of other users during unstaffed times.

“I worry about someone having a fall or somebody causing damage. A response to this wouldn’t be quick enough with the use of CCTV.” Calne

  • “Thin end of the wedge”: system is introduced to extend opening hours but, with cuts, may increasingly replace core hours, being used as an excuse or placebo for reducing opening hours. Research shows that, in Denmark, users would be unhappy to use the system if it directly replaced staffing. In addition, Danish research suggests and entirely staffless library is not successful.
  • Dependent on IT.  If there is a problem with the library servers or other computer-related issue, including servers or data, then the system does not work and the library has to close.

“TEO [Open+] requires names and PIN numbers to be able to operate. Verification between the door entry panel and the library management system is not available as the latter has failed. Entry into the building using TEO is therefore not currently possible. Names have been recovered but PIN information is irrecoverable. PINs will need to be reissued. A step by step process to re-establishing the service, based on the time required to communicate to all registered users of the TEO service, has been created. Registered TEO users will be notified of the new PIN by the 1st April, ready for the target date for re-opening of the TEO hours of the 1st April.” Appendix L: Issues arising from the Failure of the library management system – Barnet Council, 23rd March, 2016.”

  •  Risk assessment needed to identify all eventualities so service can still show duty of care.

Barnet – ‘They may as well stock it with weapons and tell people where to hit the bullseye’ – anger over unstaffed libraries – Time Series. Campaigners pretend to wreak havoc in Open+ library, including two collapsing and one smoking. No response from CCTV. “People say they don’t want to go there at night because it is creepy when nobody works there. “Smoke alarms might not even pick up smoking.” [February 2016]

Further reading

List of known Open+ Libraries in the UK

The following is a doubtless incomplete list of authorities and branches which are using or plan to use this system. The UK managing director of Bibliotheca has emailed me to say 20% of all UK library services have installed, or are about to install, at least one service point (December 2016).


“The health and safety risks of this shift to ‘open libraries’ are self-evident: CCTV will be unmonitored, toilets will be closed, many vulnerable users will feel unsafe, while children under 16 years of age will not even be allowed to use these ‘libraries’ unaccompanied by an adult (age 18 or older). The Council claims it is using a ‘pilot’ at Edgware library to test its plans. However the pilot is not a fair test because, unlike in the proposed plan, a security guard is present during unstaffed hours, which are, in fact, only in addition to current opening hours.” Broken Barnet, January 2016



Brighton and Hove

“The three month pilot at Woodingdean and Portslade saw 288 library users make 318 separate visits with council officers reporting a steady increase month on month. “

Pilot deemed successful in August 2016 meaning “Libraries Extra” extended to all 14 libraries.


  • St George
  • Stockwood
  • Westbury

“For veteran libraries campaigner Julie Boston, inset, of Love Bristol Libraries, this “innovation” has set alarm bells ringing. “I think it’s a horrendous idea, and the beginning of the end for librarians,” she said. “We need to protect our librarians – they serve an important purpose; they are what make libraries so accessible.” Bristol Post, January 2016.


Piloting the system at St. Ives (May 2016) with public feedback/consultation before considering rolling out to others.


Five libraries converted from August 2016. These libraries only available via swiping card before noon.

  • Kilburn Library Centre
  • Kentish Town
  • Camden Town
  • Queens Crescent
  • West Hampstead


Considering introducing system to cut costs. “This is not a total replacement for library staff. Any library adopting Open+ would still have staff on duty for a few hours each week but up to 60% could be totally unstaffed.” (November 2015)


Cullompton – no reduction in staffing, used to increase opening hours “From Monday 16th November 2015 opening hours will be extended at The Hayridge using the Open+ system. Open+ enables access to the building and facilities during unstaffed hours using your library card and PIN. If you would like to use the library or meeting rooms out of hours, please see a member of staff or email”


Consultation includes questions on volunteers/community groups doing more in libraries / more colocation / Open+.  (October 2016)

£350k allocated to Open+. IT problems. (August 2017)


Bishops Cleeve Library – open only for Open+ for majority of week (March 2017)


“In some Tier 3 libraries that are single staffed, the council is looking to pilot an ‘open library’ approach whereby the library would be unstaffed some of the time but remain open to allow customers to issue or return books using the self-service systems” (November 2015)


  • Consultation showed ” 57.31% supported or were willing to consider the introduction of Open+ technology to extend opening hours. “


  • Croxley Green is piloting Open+ (May 2017)
  • Berkhamsted new library will also be piloting Open+ (May 2017)





“”A lady has just told us that she regularly uses the library for job hunting because she no longer has the internet at home/ She saw a job advertised on Monday morning, came into the library during an open+ session and sent off her CV. She has just heard she had got the job and starts next week” Acle Library, 2015 [Quote supplied to me by Bibliotheca who say “lady was unable to attend the library during standard hours due to caring commitments.” – Ed.]

“I like Norfolk’s self-service terminals & use them a lot. But are they worth £0.9m for a measly few extra hours & less stock?” Christopher Pipe [via Twitter]

North Somerset

Northern Ireland




South Gloucestershire






      • Woodsend. “Woodsend Library has open+ technology installed to enable the opening hours of the library to be maintained with reduced staffing”
      • Lostock – “For access to the library on Saturdays and School holidays customers will need access to Open+ technology”

Vale of Glamorgan





  • #1 written by Jane Cowell
    about 2 years ago

    Interesting that all these Councils are only focused on the transaction / loan that the library does and not on the impact or function of the whole library. The public library connects people to people, people to ideas and people to place / community and a swipe card access to an otherwise locked space does not do that. Like the idea of increased after hours access to community library spaces though so the technology is certainly welcome.

  • #2 written by Michelle Sutcliffe
    about 1 year ago

    I have just seen this article & am wondering why Leeds City Council is not mentioned as they were the very first Local Authority in the U.K to be chosen to install the Open+ system. Farsley library was chosen as the pilot branch who then received numerous visits from other local authorities up & down the country to see whether they wanted to use the service. It has been running approx 18 months

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